Then do they not reflect upon the Qur'an?
if it had been from [any] other than Allah,
they would have found within it much contradiction.

- Quran an-Nisa` 4:82

  1. What is the purpose of Life? 

    [He] who created death and life to test you [as to] which of you is best in deed - and He is the Exalted in Might, the Forgiving  
    - Qur'an al-Mulk 67:2

  2. For what reason do we exist? 

    And I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship Me. 
    - Qur'an adh-Dhariyat 51:56

  3. Who is God? 

    He is Allah , other than whom there is no deity, Knower of the unseen and the witnessed. He is the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful. He is Allah , other than whom there is no deity, the Sovereign, the Pure, the Perfection, the Bestower of Faith, the Overseer, the Exalted in Might, the Compeller, the Superior. Exalted is Allah above whatever they associate with Him. He is Allah , the Creator, the Inventor, the Fashioner; to Him belong the best names. Whatever is in the heavens and earth is exalting Him. And He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise. 
    - Qur'an al-Hashr 59:22-24  

  4. Why would a Merciful God allow us to suffer? 

    Do the people think that they will be left to say, 'We believe' and they will not be tried? But We have certainly tried those before them, and Allah will surely make evident those who are truthful, and He will surely make evident the liars. 
    - Qur'an al-`Ankabut 29:2-3

  5. Where is God during all this chaos and suffering we see ? 

    And never think that Allah is unaware of what the wrongdoers do. He only delays them for a Day when eyes will stare [in horror]. Racing ahead, their heads raised up, their glance does not come back to them, and their hearts are void. 
    - Qur'an Ibrahim 14:42-43 

    And if Allah were to impose blame on the people for their wrongdoing, He would not have left upon the earth any creature, but He defers them for a specified term. And when their term has come, they will not remain behind an hour, nor will they precede [it]. 
    - Qur'an an-Nahl 16:61

  6. If God really exists, then why did He allow such and such to happen to me? 

    Allah does not charge a soul except [with that within] its capacity. It will have [the consequence of] what [good] it has gained, and it will bear [the consequence of] what [evil] it has earned... 
    - Qur'an al-Baqarah 2:286

    For indeed, with hardship [will be] ease. Indeed, with hardship [will be] ease 

    - Qur'an al-Inshirah 94:5-6

  7. I keep asking God for such and such and yet God hasn't answered me. 

    ...perhaps you hate a thing and it is good for you; and perhaps you love a thing and it is bad for you. And Allah Knows, while you know not. 

    - Qur'an al-Baqarah 2:216

    And man supplicates for evil as he supplicates for good, and man is ever hasty. 

    - Qur'an al-Isra` 17:11

  8. If God exists, then why doesn't He just appear or speak to us? 

    Those who do not know say, "Why does Allah not speak to us or there come to us a sign?" Thus spoke those before them like their words. Their hearts resemble each other. We have shown clearly the signs to a people who are certain [in faith]. 

    - Qur'an al-Baqarah 2:118 

    Indeed, in the creation of the heavens and earth, and the alternation of the night and the day, and the [great] ships which sail through the sea with that which benefits people, and what Allah has sent down from the heavens of rain, giving life thereby to the earth after its lifelessness and dispersing therein every [kind of] moving creature, and [His] directing of the winds and the clouds controlled between the heaven and the earth are signs for a people who use reason. 

    - Qur'an al-Baqarah 2:164

  9. What is the soul? and what happens to us when we die? 

    And they ask you, [O Muhammad], about the soul. Say, "The soul is of the affair of my Lord. And mankind have not been given of knowledge except a little." 

    - Qur'an al-Isra` 17:85 

    Say, "The angel of death will take you who has been entrusted with you. Then to your Lord you will be returned." 

    - Qur'an as-Sajdah 32:11 

  10. If this Qur'an is truly a guide for all of Mankind then why was it revealed in Arabic? 

    And if We had made it a non-Arabic Qur'an, they would have said, "Why are its verses not explained in detail [in our language]? Is it a foreign [recitation] and an Arab [messenger]?" Say, "It is, for those who believe, a guidance and cure." 

    - Qur'an Fussilat 41:44 

  11. If God exists, then why do evil people live lavishly and good people suffer? 

    And if it were not that the people would become one community [of disbelievers], We would have made for those who disbelieve in the Most Merciful - for their houses - ceilings and stairways of silver upon which to mount And for their houses - doors and couches [of silver] upon which to recline And gold ornament. But all that is not but the enjoyment of worldly life. And the Hereafter with your Lord is for the righteous.

    - Qur'an az-Zukhruf 43:33-35 you think that you will enter Paradise while such [trial] has not yet come to you as came to those who passed on before you? They were touched by poverty and hardship and were shaken until [even their] messenger and those who believed with him said,"When is the help of Allah ?" Unquestionably, the help of Allah is near. 

    - Qur'an al-Baqarah 2:214 

  12. What does God tell us to do, or not do?

    Indeed, Allah commands you to render trusts to whom they are due and when you judge between people to judge with justice. Excellent is that which Allah instructs you. Indeed, Allah is ever Hearing and Seeing.
    - Qur'an an-Nisa` 4:58 

    Say, "Come, I will recite what your Lord has prohibited to you. [He commands] that you not associate anything with Him, and to parents, good treatment, and do not kill your children out of poverty; We will provide for you and them. And do not approach immoralities - what is apparent of them and what is concealed. And do not kill the soul which Allah has forbidden [to be killed] except by [legal] right. This has He instructed you that you may use reason."
    - Qur'an al-An`am 6:151 

  13. Do we have the previous scriptures (the Torah and Gospel)? Are they valid?

    Among the Jews are those who distort words from their [proper] usages and say, "We hear and disobey" and "Hear but be not heard" and "Ra'ina," twisting their tongues and defaming the religion. And if they had said [instead], "We hear and obey" and "Wait for us [to understand]," it would have been better for them and more suitable. But Allah has cursed them for their disbelief, so they believe not, except for a few.
    - Qur'an an-Nisa` 4:46 

    So for their breaking of the covenant We cursed them and made their hearts hard. They distort words from their [proper] usages and have forgotten a portion of that of which they were reminded. And you will still observe deceit among them, except a few of them. But pardon them and overlook [their misdeeds]. Indeed, Allah loves the doers of good.
    - Qur'an al-Ma`idah 5:13 

  14. Even the Gospel?

    And to warn those who say, "Allah has taken a son."
    They have no knowledge of it, nor had their fathers. Grave is the word that comes out of their mouths; they speak not except a lie.
    - Qur'an al-Kahf 18:4-5


This list was inspired by a post in Reddit.

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