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O Believers, fulfill your obligations. All four-legged, plant-eating animals are lawful for you, with some exceptions. You are not allowed to hunt when you are on the pilgrimage. Certainly, Allah orders what He will.
O Believers, do not violate the rites of Allah, the sacred month, the animals brought for sacrifice, the garlands [signifying such animals]. [Do not violate] the people seeking the sacred house to find the bounty and good pleasure of their Lord. When you are finished with the pilgrimage, you may hunt. Do not let the hatred of some people who withhold you from the Sacred Mosque cause you to sin. Help one another in righteousness and holiness. Do not help one another in sin and trouble-making. Fear Allah. Indeed, Allah is strict in punishment.
Forbidden to you [for food] are carrion, blood, pork, and that over which has been invoked any name but Allah. [Forbidden to you] is anything killed by strangling or clubbing to death or by a headlong fall. [Forbidden to you is any animal] from which a wild animal has eaten unless you are still able to slaughter it. [Forbidden to you is] that [meat] which has been sacrificed on stone [altars], and also that which is divided by raffling with arrows, which is irreverence. On this day, those who reject faith have given up all hope of your religion. Yet do not fear them; instead fear Me. On this day, I have perfected your religion for you. [I have] completed My favor upon you, and have chosen Islam as your religion. Of course, if any is compelled by hunger, with no desire to indulge, Allah is indeed the Most Forgiving, Most Merciful.
They ask you what is lawful for them. Say, “All humane/ethical things are lawful for you. Trainers have trained hunting animals by teaching them from what Allah has taught you. Eat what they catch for you, but say Allah’s name over it. Be reverent of Allah. Truly, Allah is quick to take account.
“This day humane/ethical things are made lawful for you. The [kosher] food of those who were given the (Torah) is lawful for you, and your [halal] food is lawful for them. [Lawful for you men for marriage are] virtuous, believing [Muslim] women and virtuous women from among those given the (Scriptures) that was revealed before you. You must give them their dowries and be honorable. Do not commit fornication/adultery or take secret lovers. If anyone rejects faith, his/her deeds are worthless. In the hereafter, he/she will be one of the losers.”
O Believers, when you prepare for prayer, wash your faces and your hands to the elbows. Rub your heads and your feet to the ankles. If you are in a state of ceremonial impurity, bathe your whole bodies. If you are sick, on a journey, coming from the toilet, or have been sexually involved, and you cannot find water, clean your faces and hands with clean sand. Allah does not want to place you in difficulty. He wants only to make you clean and to complete His favor to you so that you may be grateful.
Remember the favor of Allah unto you. [Remember] His covenant, with which He bound you when you said, “We hear and we obey.” Fear Allah. Certainly, Allah knows well the secrets of your hearts.
O Believers, stand firmly for Allah as witnesses for justice. Do not let the hatred of others prevent you from bringing about justice. Be just; that is next to piety; and fear Allah. Indeed, Allah is well acquainted with all that you do.
To those who believe and do deeds of righteousness, Allah has promised forgiveness and a great reward.
Those who don’t believe and who deny Our signs are companions of Hell.
O Believers, remember the blessings that Allah bestowed upon you when people were about to lay hands on you. He prevented their hands from you. Be conscious of Allah. Believers should trust in Allah.
Allah made a covenant with the Children of Israel, and We appointed twelve leaders among them. Allah said, “Surely I am with you if you establish routine prayers, practice consistent charity, believe in My messengers and assist them, and loan to Allah a beautiful loan. Truly, I will wipe from you your sins and admit you to gardens with rivers flowing beneath them. If any of you, after this, resists faith, he/she has certainly wandered from the path of decency.”
Because of their breach of the covenant, We condemned (the backslidden Israelites) and made their hearts grow hard. They take words out of context and forget a part of the message sent to them. You will not cease to find them –except for the few— always bent on deceit. But forgive them and ignore [their faults]. Indeed, Allah loves those who are kind.
Also, from among those who call themselves true Christians, We made a covenant. They forgot a part of the message sent to them, so we aroused enmity and hatred among them until the Day of Resurrection. Soon Allah will show them what they have done.
O People of the Book, surely Our messenger has come to you, revealing to you much that you concealed in the (Bible) while neglecting some. Surely, there has come to you from Allah a light and a clarifying Book.
Allah guides with it all who seek His pleasure in ways of peace that lead them from layers of darkness, by His will, into the light, guiding them to the Straight Way.
Blasphemous indeed is the saying that Allah is the Messiah, the son of Mary. Say, “Who then has the least power against Allah if He decided to destroy the Messiah the son of Mary, his mother and everyone else on the earth? To Allah belongs the dominion of the skies and Earth and all that is among them. He creates what He pleases. Allah is Most Capable over all things.”
Jews and Christians say, “We are [exclusively] children of Allah and His beloved.” Say, “Why then does He punish you for your sins? Nonsense! You are only people that He has created. He forgives whom He pleases, and He punishes whom He pleases. To Allah belongs the dominion of the skies and Earth and all among them. To Him is the final return.”
O People of the Book, Our messenger has surely come to you, clarifying for you after a lull in Our messengers, lest you should say, “No bearer of good news has come to us and no warner.” Surely a bearer of good news and a warner has come to you. Allah is Most Capable over all things.
Moses said to his people, “O my people, remember the favor of Allah unto you. He produced prophets among you, made kings among you, and gave you more than what He had given to any other people.
“O my people, enter the Holy Land that Allah has decreed for you. Do not regress, or you will regress as losers.”
They said, “O Moses, barbarians are in this land. We will certainly not enter it until they are gone. If they leave, then we will enter.”
Two devout men [Joshua and Caleb], favored by Allah, said, “Confront them at the gate. Once you are in, victory will be yours. Put your trust in Allah if you have faith.”
They said, “O Moses, we will never enter it as long as they are in it. You go, along with your Lord. You [Joshua and Caleb] both fight. We will certainly sit [and wait].”
(Moses) said, “My Lord, I have no control over anybody but myself and my brother [Aaron]. Separate us from this rebellious people.”
(Allah) said, “Truly, (the land) will be forbidden to them for forty years. Bewildered, they will wander in the (wilderness). Do not grieve over the rebellious people.”
Recite to (the masses) the true story of the two sons of Adam. They each presented a sacrifice [to God]. It was accepted from one, but not from the other. (Cain) said [to Abel], “You can be sure that I will kill you.” (Abel) said, “Allah accepts the sacrifices of those who are righteous.
If you lay your hand against me to kill me, I will not lay my hand against you to kill you, because I do fear Allah, the Lord of the Worlds.
I intend to allow you to mount upon yourself my error [of not using self-defense] as well as your own [sin]. You will be among the companions of the fire, which is the reward of those who commit evil.”
(Cain’s) ego urged him toward the killing of his brother. He murdered (Abel) and became one of the lost ones.
Then Allah sent a raven, which scratched upon the ground to show (Cain) how to hide the appalling corpse of his brother. “So miserable am I!” he said. “Was I not even able to be as this raven in hiding the disgrace of my brother?” Then he was filled with regret.
Because of the account [of Cain and Abel], We ordained for the Children of Israel that if anyone killed a person –unless it is [punishment] for murder or spreading evil throughout the land— it would be as if he/she had killed all humanity. And if anyone saved a life, it would be as if he/she saved all humanity. Although there came to them Our messengers with obvious signs –even after all that— many of them continued in unrestrained behavior throughout the land.
The payment for those [terrorists] who wage war against Allah and His messenger and strive to proliferate evil [eg, rape, pedophilia] throughout the land is their being executed or crucified. [Another option is] their having alternating hands and feet amputated [ie, right hand and left foot]. [Another option is] their being exiled from the country. [Consider which is most appropriate for the hideousness of each crime]. That is their disgrace in this world, but an intense torment will be theirs in the hereafter.
The exception is those who repent before you overpower them. In that case, realize that Allah is the Most Forgiving, Most Merciful.
O Believers, revere Allah. Seek the way to approach Him. Strive in His way so that you may succeed.
Consider those who won’t believe. If they had all that is on the earth times two to offer as ransom from the doom of the Day of Resurrection, it would not be accepted from them. A horrible punishment awaits them.
They will want to get out of the fire, but they won’t succeed. They will suffer eternal punishment.
As for the [unrepentant] thief, male or female, cut off his/her hands as payment for the crime and as severe, exemplary punishment ordained by Allah. Allah is Almighty, Most Wise!
If, however, the thief repents after his/her crime and amends his/her conduct, Allah will turn to him/her in forgiveness. Allah is the Most Forgiving, Most Merciful.
Do you not realize that to Allah belongs the dominion of the skies and Earth? He punishes whom He pleases. He forgives whom He pleases. Allah is Most Capable over all things.
O Messenger, do not grieve over those who race each other in unbelief. [That includes] those who say, “We believe,” with their mouths but whose hearts have no faith. [That includes certain] Jews who will listen to any lie and even to those who don’t even know you. They take words out of context and say, “If you are given this [revelation], then you can have it! If not, beware!” If anyone’s test [of faith] is intended by Allah, you have no authority in the least for his/her sake against Allah. For such people, Allah’s will is not to purify their hearts. For them there is disgrace in this world. In the hereafter is a profound punishment.
They listen to lies. They devour anything forbidden [eg, usury]. If they do come to you, either judge among them or refuse them. If you refuse, they will not be able to injure you at all. If you judge, judge fairly among them. Allah loves those who judge fairly.
Why would (the scoffing Jews) come to (Prophet Muhammed) for judgment when they have the Torah before them? Therein is the command of Allah; yet, even after that, (these specific Jews) would backslide because they are not people of faith.
It was We who revealed the [Mosaic] law wherein was guidance and light. The Jews are evaluated by its standards, and by the prophets who submitted to Allah’s will. [The Jews are evaluated] by the rabbis and doctors of law who were entrusted with the protection of Allah’s Book [the Jewish Bible] and who were witnesses for it. Therefore, do not fear people, but fear Me. Do not trade My signs [ie, Scriptures] for a miserable profit. Any who fail to discern by what Allah has revealed are unbelievers.
We ordained therein [in the Jewish Bible], “Life for life, eye for eye, nose for nose, ear for ear, tooth for tooth, and the punishment should fit the crime. If anyone should relinquish punishment [as an act of kindness], however, this would be an act of atonement for oneself. Any who fail to discern by what Allah has revealed are sinners.
In the footsteps of (Moses, the Jewish prophets, rabbis, and doctors of law), We sent Jesus the son of Mary to confirm the Torah revealed before him. We gave him the Gospel wherein was guidance and light, confirmation of the preceding Torah, and direction and warning for those who revere Allah.
May the people of the Gospel discern by what Allah has revealed in it. Those who fail to recognize what Allah has revealed are rebellious.
To you [Muhammed] We sent the Book in truth, confirming and guarding (the Scriptures) that came previously. Differentiate among them [the people of the Gospel] by what Allah has revealed. Do not follow their vain desires [to convert to their sects], which would be a departure from the truth that has come to you. To each [society] among you We have prescribed a law and an evident way. If Allah had so willed, He would have made you a single society, except to test you in what He has given you. Therefore, strive as in a race in all virtues. The goal of you all is to Allah. He will eventually settle all your disputes.
Judge among them by what Allah has revealed. Do not follow their vain desires. Beware of them because they could lead you away from that which Allah has given you. If they reject you, be advised that Allah intends to punish them for some of their sins. Truly, most people are rebellious.
Do they prefer to be judged according to [the laws of the time of] ignorance? Who is better than Allah to judge a people of assured faith?
O Believers, do not expect Jews and Christians to be your guardians [in pursuit of Islamic interests]. Some of them are guardians of one another. Anyone among you who depends on them is truly one of them. Truly Allah does not guide sinful people.
Look at those in whose hearts is a disease. You see how eagerly they [the hypocrites] dart to them [Muslim-haters within the Judeo-Christian community] and say, “We are afraid that disaster may strike us.” It may be that Allah will grant victory or a command, in accordance with His will, and then they will repent of the secret thoughts contained in their hearts.
The believers will then say [to the hypocrites], “Are these [Muslim-haters within the Judeo-Christian community] the same people who swore their strongest oaths, in witness of Allah, that they were with you?” [This is as to say, “Why aren’t they supporting you now?”] (The hypocrites’) deeds will be worthless, and (the hypocrites) will be the losers.
O Believers, if any from among you regress from faith, Allah will make a [new] people. He will love them, and they will love Him. They will be humble toward believers. They will be strong against the unbelievers. They will fight in the way of Allah. They will not fear the blame of any critic. Such is Allah’s grace, which He grants to whom He will. Allah is All-embracing, the All-knowing.
Only Allah is your guardian. [Your friends are also] His messenger and the other believers –those who endure in ritual prayer, pay the required charity, and prostrate [in prayer].
All who cling to Allah, His messenger, and the believers indeed [belong to] the family of Allah. They will be victorious.
O Believers, do not take for guardians [of your personal interests] those who make a mockery and game of your religion. They could be among those who received (the Scriptures) before you or among those who reject religion altogether. Fear Allah if you really have faith.
When you proclaim your call to prayer, they make a mockery and game of it. That’s because they are a people without understanding.
Say, “O People of the Book, do you disapprove of us for no other reason than because we believe in Allah and what [revelation] has come to us, as well as that [Scriptures] that came before? Most of you are defiantly disobedient.”
Say, “Shall I point out to you recompense from Allah that is much worse than this [disapproval by you]? Among those condemned by Allah and receiving of His wrath were some whom He transformed into apes and pigs. They worshiped false deities! Such as these are worse by rank and far more astray from the level path [than you think we are].”
When (the hypocrites) come to you, they say, “We believe.” Actually, they enter with a mind set against faith. They go with the same. Allah knows all that they conceal.
You see many of them hurrying toward sin and misconduct. They consume what is forbidden [eg, usury]. They do whatever is evil.
Why do their rabbis and religious scholars not prevent them from their sinful speech and their consuming what is forbidden? Their deeds are certainly evil.
[Certain] Jews say, “Allah’s hand is tied.” May their hands be tied! They are condemned for what they say. Nonsense! Both His hands are widely outstretched. He gives and spends as He pleases. The revelation that comes to you [Muhammed] from Allah increases rebellion and unbelief in many of them. We have allowed enmity and hatred among them until the Day of Resurrection. Every time they kindle the fire of war, Allah extinguishes it. Still, they strive to do evil on earth. Allah does not love those who do evil.
If the people of the Book had believed and been righteous, We would have washed away their sins and admitted them to gardens of bliss.
If they had adhered to the Torah, the Gospel, and all other revelation sent to them from their Lord, they would have enjoyed happiness from all around. Some of them follow the right way, but many of them follow an evil path.
O Messenger, proclaim what has been sent to you from your Lord. If you did not, you would not have fulfilled His message. Allah will defend you from the others. Allah does not guide those who reject faith.
Say, “O People of the Book, you have no foundation unless you stand firmly by the Torah, the Gospel, and what else has descended to you from your Lord.” What has been revealed to you [Muhammed], from your Lord, increases rebellion and unbelief in most of them. Do not fret over people without faith.
Indeed, those who believe [in the Qur’an], those who are [practicing] Jews, the Sabeans, the Christians, and any others who believe in Allah and the last day and who perform righteous deeds will have neither fear nor grief.
We made a covenant with the Children of Israel. We sent messengers to them. Whenever a messenger came to them with something they did not want to hear, they called some of them liars. They killed some of them.
They thought nothing would happen to them. They became unseeing and unhearing. Allah accepted their repentance. Again, some of them became unseeing and unhearing. Allah sees all that they do.
They blaspheme who say that Allah is indeed the Messiah the son of Mary. Messiah said, “O Children of Israel, worship Allah my Lord and your Lord.” Concerning anyone who associates partners with Allah, Allah will indeed forbid Paradise to him/her. The fire will be his/her abode. There will be no one to help the sinners.
They blaspheme who say that Allah is indeed one of a Trinity. No god is there except One God. If they do not desist from what they are saying, truly, a horrendous punishment will afflict the unbelievers among them.
Why do they not turn to Allah and seek His forgiveness? Allah is the Most Forgiving, Most Merciful.
Messiah the son of Mary was only a messenger [not the incarnation of God]. Certainly, messengers came and went before him. His mother was truthful. They both had to eat food [like everybody else]. See how We make His signs clear to them [the misguided]. Yet look at how they are deluded.
Say, “Would you worship, instead of Allah, something that has no power either to harm or benefit you? Only Allah is All-hearing, the All-knowing.”
Say, “O People of the Book, do not exceed in your religion what is beyond the truth. Do not follow the vain desires of people who were astray in previous times. They misled many and got off the right path.”
Some Children of Israel rejected faith. They were condemned by words from David and Jesus the son of Mary. That is because (the sinners) disobeyed and continued to sin.
They would not stop each other from doing the evil they committed. Their deeds were indeed horrible.
You see many of them befriending the unbelievers. The investment their souls have made is evil indeed. Allah’s wrath is on them. They will abide in torment.
If they had really believed in Allah, the Prophet, and what has been revealed to him, they would not have taken (the unbelievers) as allies. Many of them are truly wicked.
You will find that the people most hostile to the [Muslim] believers are [among] the [unfaithful] Jews and idolaters. Those nearest in friendship to the [Muslim] believers are [among] those who say, “We are Christians,” because some of these [Christians] are (scholarly leaders and devout parishioners) who are not arrogant.
When they listen to the (revelation) received by the Messenger, you will see their eyes overflowing with tears, for they recognize the truth. They pray, “Our Lord, we believe, so record us among the witnesses.
What reason do we have not to believe in Allah and the truth that has come to us? We long for our Lord to include us in the company of the righteous.”
Because of their prayer, Allah has rewarded them with Paradise, underneath which rivers flow, for their eternal home. Such is the incentive for those who live righteously.
Those who reject faith and contradict Our Scriptures, however, will be companions of Hell.
O Believers, do not ban the good things that Allah has made lawful for you. Commit no excess. Allah does not love transgressors.
Partake of the lawful, good things that Allah grants you as sustenance. Fear Allah in whom you believe.
Allah will not hold you accountable for unintentional slips in your oaths. He will hold you accountable for deliberate oaths. [If you break such an oath,] you must atone by feeding ten needy persons with what you would feed your own families on the average; or, you may clothe them; or, you may free a slave. Anyone who cannot do any of these should fast for three days. This will be the atonement for any sworn oaths. Be careful of oaths! Thus, Allah clarifies His verses so you may be grateful.
O Believers, intoxicants, gambling, [idolizing] stones, and [telling the future by] arrows are all evil acts. They are Satan’s tools. Avoid them so you may be successful.
Satan’s plan is to incite enmity and hatred among you with intoxicants and gambling. [He wants to] hinder you from the remembrance of Allah and from ritual prayer. Will you abstain?
Obey Allah and obey the messenger. Be cautious. If you regress, realize that it is Our messenger’s duty to preach in the clearest fashion.
The believers who live righteously are not blamed for what they ate [in the past] as long as they guard themselves from evil, believe, and live righteously. Again, they must guard themselves from evil and believe. Again, they must guard themselves from evil and live righteously. Allah loves those who live righteously.
O Believers, Allah will test you concerning wild, food animals within reach of your hands and weapons. Allah will distinguish those who fear Him unseen. Any who sin after this will have a horrid punishment.
O Believers, do not kill wild, food animals while you are involved in the sacred rites. If one among you intentionally kills (a wild animal), he/she has to pay from the domestic animals. The exact offering must be decided by two righteous people from among you. The offering must reach the Kabah. As alternatives [for the atonement], [the perpetrator] may feed the poor, or he/she may fast an appropriate time. In that way, he/she may taste the penalty of the deed. Allah forgives what is past. For repetitive mistakes, Allah will inflict punishment on (the perpetrator). Allah is the Victorious owner of justice.
It is lawful for you to pursue food from the sea. This food is an allowance for you [who are stationary] and for travelers. Hunting on land is forbidden as long as you are involved in the sacred rites. Fear Allah to whom you shall be assembled.
Allah has made the Kabah, the sacred house, a symbol for all humanity. The sacred month [of pilgrimage] and the offerings and garlands are all symbols. They remind you that Allah has knowledge of what is in the skies and on earth. Allah is the All-knowing.
You must realize that Allah is severe in punishment. Allah is the Most Forgiving, Most Merciful.
The messenger’s duty is only to preach. Allah knows all that you reveal and all that you conceal.
Say, “Evil and goodness are not alike. The abundance of evil may dazzle you. Fear Allah, people of understanding, so you may be successful.”
O Believers, do not ask questions about things if the precision [of specific laws] about them would cause you difficulties. If you ask about them while the Qur’an is being revealed, (specific laws) will be declared for you. Allah does not hold you responsible (for specific laws not revealed). Allah is the Most Forgiving, Most Tolerant.
People before you asked such questions, and they lost their faith because of (detailed rules).
Allah never dictated [superstitious rituals like] slitting the ears of a female camel, releasing a female camel into open fields, sacrificing twin births in animals, and releasing stallion camels from work. Only unbelievers invent such lies against Allah. Most of them lack reasoning skills.
They are told, “Come to what Allah has revealed. Come to the messenger.” They say, “We are satisfied with what our fathers did [as religious practices].” Nonsense! Their fathers did not know anything, and they did not follow the right way.
O Believers, guard your own souls. Those who stray cannot hurt you if you are properly guided. Your goal is to Allah. He will advise you of all that you did.
O Believers, when death approaches one of you, witnesses from among you should be present for making a will. Choose two honest people from your own clan, or choose two from another clan if you are traveling across the land and the calamity of death seems likely. Detain them both after prayer. If you doubt their honesty, they should promise before Allah, “We will not profit from this, even though a relative may be involved. We will not hide the evidence before Allah. If we do, we would truly be sinners.”
Later, if it becomes evident that the two [witnesses] are guilty of such sin, two others should take their place. They should be from among those having a legal right over the former two [eg, close relatives of the deceased]. They shall promise before Allah, “Truly, our testimony is truer than the testimony of the former witnesses. We are not being unfair in any way. If we were, we would certainly be among the trespassers.”
This [course of action] will make it more likely that people will offer honest testimony. Otherwise, they will fear that their oaths will be refuted by the oaths of others. Fear Allah and listen [to His counsel]. Allah does not guide rebellious people.
One day Allah will assemble the messengers and ask, “What response did you receive?” They will say, “We have no knowledge; indeed, You are the Intellect of what is hidden.”
Allah will then say, “O Jesus son of Mary, recall my favor to you and to your mother when I strengthened you with the Holy Spirit. You spoke to people in infancy as well as in maturity. I taught you the Book and Wisdom, the Torah and the Gospel. You made from clay the figure of a bird, by My will. You breathed into it, and it became a [living] bird, by My will. You healed those born blind and the lepers, by My will. You brought forth the dead, by My will. I restrained the Children of Israel from you when you showed them obvious signs. The unbelievers among them said, ‘This is nothing but evident magic.’
“I inspired the disciples to have faith in Me and My Messenger. They said, ‘We believe, so bear witness that we indeed are Muslims [ie, in submission to God].’”
The disciples said, “O Jesus son of Mary, can your Lord send down for us a table graced from Heaven?” He said, “Fear Allah if you are believers.”
They said, “We only want to eat from it and be satisfied. We want to be assured that you have told us the truth. We want to witness it for ourselves.”
Jesus son of Mary said, “O Allah our Lord, send us a table set from Heaven. May there be for the first and last of us a feast and a sign from You. Provide for us. You are the best Sustainer.”
Allah said, “I will indeed send it down to you. If any of you won’t believe after that, I will punish with a penalty unlike any I have inflicted on any other people.”
Allah will say, “O Jesus son of Mary, did you say to people, ‘Worship me and my mother as divinities, detracting from Allah’?” (Jesus) will say, “Glory to You! I could never say such a thing! If I had said anything like that, You surely would have known it. You know what is in my heart, though I do not know all that is in Yours. Truly, You know fully all that is hidden.
“I never said anything to them other than what You commanded me to say, which was, ‘Worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord.’ I was a witness for them while I lived among them. After You raised me [to Heaven], You were the Watchful One over them. You are a Witness over everything.”
“If You decide to punish them, they are still Your servants; if You decide to forgive them, You are the Victorious, the Perfectly Wise.”
Allah will say, “This is a day on which the truthful will profit from their truth.” They will have gardens, with underground rivers, which is their eternal home. Allah will be pleased with them, and they with Allah. That is the awesome salvation!
To Allah belongs the dominion of Heaven and Earth and all therein. He has power over all things!